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Thread: Election Laws General & Article 114 of the Constitution on SPR appointment

   
   
       
  1. #1
    Join Date
    Oct 2008
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    Post Election Laws General & Article 114 of the Constitution on SPR appointment

    It is important to have a basic understanding of the Constitution which affects our lives so extensively. It is the Social Contract.

    Federation of Malaysia Constitution - An Introduction by slideshare.

    Akta-akta Suruhan Pilihan Raya

    Listed below are the Akta-akta Surahan Pilihan Raya, which are taken from SPR's website.
    For those who prefer to download and browse the acts on their computer, please download the attachment.
    Akta-akta SPR BM.zip

    Akta 19 (Akta Pilihan Raya 1958)
    Bahagian I (Permulaan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...an/akta19i.pdf
    Bahagian II (Penyeliaan Pilihan Raya)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...n/akta19ii.pdf
    Bahagian III (Bahagian Pilihan Raya)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...agian19iiI.pdf
    Bahagian IV (Pendaftaran Pemilih)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...hagian19iv.pdf
    Bahagian V (Penjalanan Pilihan Raya)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...ahagian19v.pdf
    Bahagian VI (Peraturan-Peraturan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...hagian19vi.pdf

    Akta 5 (Akta Kesalahan Pilihan Raya 1954)
    Bahagian I (Permulaan dan Pentafsiran)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...bahagian5i.pdf
    Bahagian II (Kesalahan Pilihan Raya)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...ahagian5ii.pdf
    Bahagian III (Perbuatan Rasuah)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...hagian5iii.pdf
    Bahagian IV (Ejen Pilihan Raya, Belanja Pilihan Raya Dan Perbuatan Yang Menyalahi Undang -undang
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...ahagian5iv.pdf
    Bahagian IVA (Pasukan Penguat Kuasa)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...hagian5iva.pdf
    Bahagian V (Maaf Kerana Perbuatan Rasuah Atau Perbuatan Yang Menyalahi Undang-undang
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...bahagian5v.pdf
    Bahagian VI (Alasan Bagi Membatalkan Pemilihan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...ahagian5vi.pdf
    Bahagian VII (Petisyen Pilihan Raya)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...hagian5vii.pdf

    Jadual Pertama
    Borang A (Borang Sumpah Kerahsiaan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...n5jadual1A.pdf
    Borang B (Penyata Berkenaan Dengan Belanja Pilihan Raya)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...n5jadual1B.pdf
    Borang C (Pernyataan Atas sumpah Oleh Calon)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...20jadual1C.pdf
    Borang D (Pernyataan Bersumpah Oleh Ejen Pilihan Raya)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...20jadual1d.pdf

    Jadual Kedua
    (Kaedah-Kaedah Petisyen Pilihan Raya 1954)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...hg5jadual2.pdf

    Peraturan Pilihan Raya (Penjalanan Pilihan Raya) 1981
    Pengenalan
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...endahuluan.pdf
    Penamaan
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1_penamaan.pdf
    Pilihan Raya Yang Tidak Dipertandingkan
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...bertanding.pdf
    Pilihan Raya Yang Dipertandingkan
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...bertanding.pdf
    Am
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81_prayaam.pdf

    Jadual Pertama
    Borang 1 (Writ Pilihan Raya)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81jdl1brg1.pdf
    Borang 2 (Notis Untuk Mengadakan Pilihan Raya Umum)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81jdl1brg2.pdf
    Borang 2A (Notis Untuk Mengadakan Pilihan Raya Kecil)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg2A.pdf
    Borang 3 (Notis Untuk Memilih Seorang Ahli Dewan Rakyat/Dewan Undangan Negeri)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81jdl1brg3.pdf
    Borang 4 (Kertas Penamaan Bahagian Pilihan Raya Parlimen)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81jdl1brg4.pdf
    Borang 4A (Kertas Penamaan Bahagian Pilihan Raya Negeri)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg4A.pdf
    Borang 5 (Akuan Berkanun Calon Pilihan Raya Bagi Ahli Dewan Rakyat)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81jdl1brg5.pdf
    Borang 5A (Akuan Berkanun Calon Bagi Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg5A.pdf
    Borang 6 (Notis Penarikan Balik Penamaan Calon Bagi Ahli Dewan Rakyat)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81jdl1brg6.pdf
    Borang 6A (Notis Penarikan Balik Penamaan Calon Bagi Ahli Dewan Undangan Negeri)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg6A.pdf
    Borang 8 (Notis Pilihan Raya Yang Dipertandingkan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81jdl1brg8.pdf
    Borang 9 (Bentuk Muka Depan Kertas Undi)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...81jdl1brg9.pdf
    Borang 10 (Akuan Mengenai Identiti)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg10.pdf
    Borang 11 (Akuan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg11.pdf
    Borang 12A (Notis Pengiraan Undi Di Tempat Mengira)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...jdl1brg12A.pdf
    Borang 13 (Penyata Kertas Undi)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg13.pdf
    Borang 14 (Penyata Pengundi Selepas Pengiraan Undi)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg14.pdf
    Borang 15 (Penyata Pengundian Selepas Pengiraan Kertas Undi Pos)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg15.pdf
    Borang 16 (Penyata Pengundian Selepas Penjumlahan Rasmi Undi)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...1jdl1brg16.pdf

    Jadual Kedua:
    (Arahan Bagi Panduan Pengundi Untuk Dipamerkan Di Luar Tiap-Tiap Tempat Mengundi)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...n/1981jdl2.pdf

    Jadual Ketiga:
    (Tatacara Yang Kena Diikuti Jika Bilangan Kertas Undi Yang Didapati dalam Suatu Peti Undi Melebihi Bilangan Yang Dinyatakan Sebagai Berada Di Dalamnya Mengikut Borang 13)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...n/1981jdl3.pdf

    Peraturan Pilihan Raya (Pengundian Pos) 2003
    Bahagian I (Permulaan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...spermulaan.pdf
    Bahagian II (Pengundi Pos)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...engundipos.pdf
    Bahagian III (Pengeluaran Kertas Undi)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...kertasundi.pdf
    Bahagian IV (Pembukaan Peti Pengundi Pos)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...etiundipos.pdf
    Bahagian V (Am)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...raturan/am.pdf

    Jadual:
    Borang 1 (Permohonan Bagi Kertas Undi Pos)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...n/2003jdl1.pdf
    Borang 2 (Perisytiharan Identiti)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...n/2003jdl2.pdf

    Peraturan Pilihan Raya (Pendaftaran Pemilih) 2002
    Permulaan
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...tarpemilih.pdf
    Bentuk Daftar Pemilih
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...tarpemilih.pdf
    Daftar Pemilih Induk
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...milihinduk.pdf
    Daftar Pemilih Tambahan
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...ihtambahan.pdf
    Pelbagai
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...n/pelbagai.pdf

    Jadual
    Borang A (Pendaftaran Pemilih)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...an/BorangA.pdf
    Borang B (Borang Tuntutan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...an/BorangB.pdf
    Borang C (Borang Bantahan)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...an/BorangC.pdf
    Borang D (Notis Kepada Orang Yang Terhadapnya Bantahan Dibuat)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...an/BorangD.pdf
    Borang E (Notis)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...an/BorangE.pdf
    Borang F (Pemerakuan Pendaftar)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/index_files/ak...an/BorangF.pdf
    py

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Jul 2010
    Posts
    16

    SPR Acts and Regulation

    English Version.

    Contents:
    1. Election Act, 1958, (ACT 19)
    2. Election Offences Act, 1954, (ACT 5)
    3. Elections Commission Act 1957 (Act 31) - not included but can be found in the Law Book
    4. Elections (Control of Motor Vehicles and Vessels) Regulations 1959 - not included but can be found in the Law Book
    5. ELECTIONS (CONDUCT of ELECTIONS) REGULATIONS 1981
    6. Elections (Registration of Electors) Regulation, 2002
    7. Elections (Postal Voting) Regulations 2003
    SPR Acts & Election Regulations.zip


    Election Act, 1958, (ACT 19)
    Part 1 (Preliminary)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionAct1958(Act19)/part1.pdf
    Part 2 (Supervision of Elections)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionAct1958(Act19)/part2.pdf
    Part 3 (Constituencies)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionAct1958(Act19)/part3.pdf
    Part 4 (Registration of Electors)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionAct1958(Act19)/part4.pdf
    Part 5 (Conduct of Elections)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionAct1958(Act19)/part5.pdf
    Part 6 (Regulations)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionAct1958(Act19)/part6.pdf

    *************************************

    Election Offences Act, 1954, (ACT 5)

    Part 1 (Preliminary and Interpretation)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/part%201.pdf
    Part 2 (Electoral Offences)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/part%202.pdf
    Part 3 (Corrupt Practices)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/part%203.pdf
    Part 4 (Election Agent, Election Expenses and Illegal Practices)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/part%204.pdf
    Part 4a (Enforcement Team)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/part%204_a_.pdf
    Part 5 (Excuse for corrupt or illegal practice)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/part%205.pdf
    Part 6 (Grounds for avoiding elections)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/part%206.pdf
    Part 7 (Election Petitions)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/part%207.pdf

    First Schedule:
    Form A (Form of Oath and Secrecy)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/First%20Schedule/FORM%20A.pdf
    Form B (Return Respecting Election Expenses)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/First%20Schedule/FORM%20B.pdf
    Form C (Statement On Oath by Candidate)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/First%20Schedule/FORM%20C.pdf
    Form D (Statement On Oath by An Election Agent)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/First%20Schedule/FORM%20D.pdf

    Second Schedule:
    (Election Petition Rules 1954)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/ElectionOffencesAct1954(Act5)/First%20Schedule/SECOND%20SCHEDULE.pdf

    **************************************

    ELECTIONS (CONDUCT of ELECTIONS) REGULATIONS 1981
    Introduction
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/part%201.pdf
    Nomination
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/part%202.pdf
    Uncontested Election
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/part%203.pdf
    Contested Election
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/part%204.pdf
    General
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/part%205.pdf

    First Schedule:
    Form 1 (Writ of Election)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%201.pdf
    Form 2 (Notice To Hold A General Election)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%202.pdf
    Form 2A (Notice To Hold A By-Election)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%202_a_.pdf
    Form 3 (Notice of Election of A Member of The Dewan Rakyat / Legislative Assembly of The State)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%203.pdf
    Form 4 (Nomination Paper Parliamentary Constituency)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%204.pdf
    Form 4A (Nomination Paper State Constituency)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%204_a_.pdf
    Form 5 (Statutory Declaration of A Person Nominated As A Candidate For Election As A Member of The Dewan Rakyat)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%205.pdf
    Form 5A (Statutory Declaration of A Person Nominated As A Candidate For Election As A Member of The Legislative Assembly of The State)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%205_a_.pdf
    Form 6 (Notice of Withdrawal of Nomination As A Candidate For Election As A Member of Dewan Rakyat)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%206.pdf
    Form 6A (Notice of Withdrawal of Nomination As A Candidate For Election As A Member of Legislative Assembly)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%206_a_.pdf
    Form 8 (Notice of Contested Election)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%208.pdf
    Form 9 (Frontpage of Ballot Papers)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%209.pdf
    Form 10 (Declaration of Identity)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%2010.pdf
    Form 11 (Declaration)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%2011.pdf
    Form 12A (Notice Counting of Votes At A Counting Places)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/FORM%2012_a_.pdf
    Form 13 (Ballot Papers Statement)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%2013.pdf
    Form 14 (Statement of The Poll After Counting The Ballot)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%2014.pdf
    Form 15 (Statement of The Poll After Counting The Postal Ballot Papers)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%2015.pdf
    Form 16 (Statement of The Poll After The Official Addition of Votes)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/form%2016.pdf

    Second Schedule:
    (Directions for the guidance of voters to be exhibited outside every polling station)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/SECOND%20SCHEDULE.pdf

    Third Schedule:
    (Procedure to be followed if the number of ballot papers found in a ballot box exceeds the number stated to be there in according to Form 13)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(ConductofElections)Regulations1981/first%20schedule/THIRD%20SCHEDULE.pdf


    ************************

    Elections (Registration of Electors) Regulation, 2002:
    Part 1 (Preliminary)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/part%201.pdf
    Part 2 (Form of Electoral Roll)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/part%202.pdf
    Part 3 (Principal Electoral Roll)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/part%203.pdf
    Part 4 (The Supplementary Electoral Roll)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/part%204.pdf
    Part 5 (Miscellaneous)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/part%205.pdf

    Schedule:
    Form A (Registration of Electoral)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/Schedule/Form%20A.pdf
    Form B (Claim Form)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/Schedule/Form%20B.pdf
    Form C (Objection Form)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/Schedule/Form%20C.pdf
    Form D (Notice to Person Against Whom Objection Is Made)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/Schedule/Form%20D.pdf
    Form E (Notice)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/Schedule/Form%20E.pdf
    Form F (Certification Of Registrar)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(RegistrationofElectors)Regulations2002/Schedule/Form%20F.pdf

    ***********************************

    Elections (Postal Voting) Regulations 2003:
    Part 1 (Preliminary)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(PostalVoting)Regulations2003/part%201.pdf
    Part 2 (Postal Votes)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(PostalVoting)Regulations2003/part%202.pdf
    Part 3 (Issuing of Ballot Papers)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(PostalVoting)Regulations2003/part%203.pdf
    Part 4 (Opening of Postal Voter's Ballot Box)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(PostalVoting)Regulations2003/part%204.pdf
    Part 5 (General)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(PostalVoting)Regulations2003/part%205.pdf

    Schedule:
    Form 1 (Application For Postal Ballot Paper)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(PostalVoting)Regulations2003/Schedule/form1.pdf
    Form 2 (Declaration Of Identity)
    http://www.spr.gov.my/eng/index_files/akta_peraturanVBI/Elections(PostalVoting)Regulations2003/Schedule/FORM2.pdf

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Oct 2008
    Posts
    13,391
    Please note: Election Laws book from International Law Books Services is more up to date. If you have access to the Law Gazette, you can get the latest version of the laws. Also take note of Article 114 of the Federal Constitution that covers the appointment of the Election Commission. They must be members that have public confidence.

    The Election Commission of Malaysia (Malay: Suruhanjaya Pilihan Raya Malaysia (SPR)) is a commission set up for the purpose of regulating and conducting elections in Malaysia. Its establishment is mandated by Article 114 of the Constitution of Malaysia.

    Contents [hide]
    1 History
    2 Constitutional Mandate
    3 Functions
    4 Notes and references
    5 External links
    [edit]History

    The Election Commission (EC) was formed on Sept 4, 1957, under Article 114 of the Constitution of Malaysia, which empowers it to conduct elections for the Dewan Rakyat and state legislative bodies.

    At its establishment, the EC only consisted of a chairman and two members – Datuk Dr Mustafa Albakri Hassan together with Lee Ewe Boon and Ditt Singh.

    A secretariat was also set up to fulfil the commission's functions and carry out its decisions, with a secretary made the chief administrator. The first EC secretary was H. Cassidy.

    After the formation of Malaysia in 1963 and the inclusion of Sabah and Sarawak, another member was added to represent the two states on a rotation basis. Datuk Abang Marzuki Nor from Sarawak was the first such member appointed.

    An amendment to Article 114 made in 1981 provided for the new post of a deputy chairman, and Abdul Rahman Abdul Hassan was the first to hold this position.

    Today, the EC has a chairman, a deputy chairman and five members, all appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong after consulting the Conference of Rulers.

    [edit]Constitutional Mandate

    Under Article 114, the Commission is empowered to "conduct elections to the House of Representatives (Dewan Rakyat, the lower house of Parliament) and the Legislative Assemblies of the States". Under the Constitution of the independent Federation of Malaya, the Commission comprised one Chairman and two members, but after Malaya merged with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore to form Malaysia, the Commission's membership was expanded by constitutional amendment to provide for an additional member from Sabah or Sarawak. A 1981 amendment to the Constitution added another member and created the post of Deputy Chairman.[1]

    The Commission has the power to delimit constituencies, revise the electoral roll of registered voters, and regulate the manner in which elections are conducted. Although the Constitution does not refer to the Commission as being a body independent from influence by the government or otherwise, constitutional scholars have generally considered the Constitution as intending to protect the independence of the Commission. Among other things, commissioners are protected by tenure, and may only be removed through the same procedure as a judge of the Supreme Court. The terms of remuneration of a commissioner cannot be altered to his disadvantage after he has been appointed.[1]

    Members of the Commission are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King), who must consult with the Conference of Rulers and appoint a Commission which has the confidence of the public. Although the Constitution does not expressly require consultation with the Prime Minister in this regard, it has been argued that under Article 40 of the Constitution, the King cannot act on his own discretion unless explicitly stated; in all other cases, he must acquiesce to the advice of the Prime Minister, and as such the appointments to the Commission are made with the advice of the Prime Minister. Members of the Commission retire at the age of 65.[2]

    [edit]Functions

    Apart from regulating elections, the EC's duties include reviewing the boundaries of parliamentary and state constituencies, holding by-elections and carrying out registration exercises.

    It also collects information on newly developed areas to ensure a fair representation of voters in each constituency, promotes awareness on how important it is to vote and revises the electoral roll by deleting the names of those who are dead or have been disqualified.

    On polling day, EC members and officers will be stationed at polling centres nationwide to oversee the process.
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