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Thread: Indelible ink: Suppliers

   
   
       
  1. #1
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    Indelible ink: Suppliers

    Electoral Stain - Indelible Ink

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    12 listings.

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    1. AVANTE International Technology, Inc.
    70 Washington Road
    Princeton Junction, NJ
    08550
    USA
    Cynthia Chu
    International Marketing of Sales
    cchu@avantetech.com
    +1 609-799-8896
    +1 609-799-9308 (Fax)
    www.avantetech.com
    AVANTE has provided election communities with many innovations. In optical scan voting, the accurate counting is based on captured and stored digital ballot images (pictures) that achieved unparalleled auditability, transparency and accuracy.

    AVANTE also enhanced the credibility and auditability of DRE voting with a patented voter-verified paper audit trail and contributed to voter accessibility with a patented ballot marking device.

    AVANTE also developed and patented the use of biometrics for voter authentication. AVANTE is the first to couple its patented biometric voter registration solution with its vote counting systems for automatic verification of voters in preventing unauthorized voting and multiple voting.
    Election Experience: AVANTE is proud to have worked with the Election Commissions of Uganda and Nigeria. The work contributed to the credibility and auditability of the respective elections in 2011 with the real-time transmission and dissemination of election results, and capturing of biometrics for voter authentication.
    AVANTE also worked on the first unchallenged election for the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao in Philippines with 1.2 million optical scan of counterfeit detecting ballots with digital images of ballots as audit trail.
    AVANTE deployed the first DRE-VVPAT in 2002 and aslo used in New Jersey and other states. AVANTE also provided ballot-marking device solutions to New York covering 80% of the accessible voting population needs in 31 counties.



    2. CODE Inc.

    878 Boyd Avenue
    Ottawa, Ontario
    K2A 2E3
    CANADA
    Dwight Casson
    Chief Executive Officer
    information@codeinc.com
    +1 613-260-3457
    +1 613-260-3458 (Fax)
    www.codeinc.com
    CODE Inc. delivers a comprehensive range of election and registration supplies. With 20+ years of experience in more than 60 countries and over 250 projects, we specialize in pre-assembled, customized supply kits to suit our clients’ needs. We offer the best products at the best prices, always delivered on time, anywhere in the world. Working closely with electoral bodies, we monitor all deliveries, offer material management services and provide on-site training when required.
    Election Experience: Election and related experience include: Afghanistan, Albania, Antigua, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bosnia, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Canada, Chad, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, East Timor, Ethiopia, Falkland Islands, Gabon, Georgia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea Bissau, Guinea Conakry, Guyana, Haiti, Iraq, Jamaica, Kenya, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Lesotho, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, Palestine, Philippines, Rwanda, Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Sudan, Switzerland, Tanzania, The Gambia, Togo, Uganda, USA, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Yemen, Zambia, and Zanzibar
    Product Video



    3. Copenhagen Election A/S

    Sankt Annae Plads 11
    Copenhagen
    DK-1250
    DENMARK
    Thomas Boserup
    Managing Director
    info@cphelect.com
    +45 3393 1981
    +45 3393 1987 (Fax)
    www.cphelect.com
    Copenhagen Election was founded in 2007 with an aim to facilitate fraud-free elections anywhere on the planet. The company specializes in delivery of election materials and related services worldwide and strives to be the most innovative, focused, and reliable provider of election products and services.

    The company is organized for fast and reliable supply of your requirements, enabling your organization to operate as safely as possible. To do this, we work closely with a wide network of suppliers and manufacturers all over the world to ensure timely delivery of all products of high uniform quality, which meets and exceeds the expectations of our clients.
    Election Experience: Our staff has extensive experience in logistics and supplies to Africa, Eastern Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. For over 15 years our employees have worked closely together with United Nations, NATO, Governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations, Peace Keeping Forces, and private contractors. This valuable experience enables Copenhagen Election A/S to fulfill our obligations towards our client during times of civil and political unrest and under even the most difficult logistical conditions.



    4. DCS Group

    Stroemmen 6
    Nr. Sundby
    DK-9400
    DENMARK
    Stine Nilsson
    Project Coordinator
    SN@dcsgroup.com
    + 45 70231370
    + 45 70231371 (Fax)
    http://www.dcsgroup.dk/election.asp
    The DCS Group provides customized logistical solutions and equipment materials for elections worldwide. We understand the complex needs of our clients, and our wealth of knowledge and experience in extreme political and social conditions means we deliver turnkey solutions to suit their specific needs.

    Our logistical and organisational setup is trimmed for customized solutions to elections in remote regions. Our services include turn-key election solutions, customized ballots, ballot boxes, registration forms, plastic seals, voting screens, ink, ultraviolet lamps, lanterns, candles, generators, signs, logistics, warehousing, kit packaging, hardware and software compliance, and in-country training of staff in their language.
    Election Experience: The DCS Group has over 25 years of experience working in Africa, Europe, Asia and the Middle East. Projects include: UNDP, Afghanistan (voter registration kits); UNHCR,Burundi (ultraviolet lamps); Hungary (ultraviolet ink and punchers) and Switzerland (various election materials); Election Commission of Macedonia (ballot boxes,seals, ultraviolet ink and lamps, and batteries); Election Commission of Georgia (ultraviolet lamps); Election Commission of Kenya (embossers and stamps); Nepal (ballot boxes and security seals); Election Commission of Pakistan (voting booths).



    5. General Consolidated Impex Company

    Room 1718 West Wing Star House 3 Salisbury Road, TST, Kowloon
    HONG KONG
    Pierre Gallo
    Sales Executive
    pierre@chinahong.com
    +852 2735 6243
    www.electionequipment.asia
    Election Equipment Asia is a China based supplier of a large range of Products specially designed for Elections and Campaigns of every kind.

    With more than 30 years of experience in the Far East, we provide our clients with absolute assurance when it comes to the quality of all our Services and Products. Our Quality Standards are constantly verified in the factory by performance tests conducted on every item at every stage of production.

    As you look through our products, you will only see an indication of our full range. Our in-house design team is always working to come up with new additions. So, please feel free to contact us for any equipment you are interested in – whether you see it here, or anywhere else.

    We can also CUSTOMIZE most of our Products upon request according to customer’s Artwork and Requirements. For any Inquiry, please contact us by email at gci@chinahong.com
    Election Experience: For more than 8 years we have been supplying the United Kingdom and countries in the CIS with Ballot Boxes, Voting Booths, Election Kits, Supervisor Accessories...etc. on an OEM basis. During this time we have built up our own comprehensive range of every kind of Election and Campaign related products.

    At Election Equipment Asia we are continuously working to develop new Items that meet the most stringent International Standards while trying to ensure the best possible pricing structure for our clients.

    To discover our full range of Ballot Boxes and Voting booths, and everything else that can possibly be needed to ensure a smooth running election, please visit us online.
    Product Video




    6. Indra

    Avenida de Bruselas, 35
    Madrid, Alcobendas
    28108
    SPAIN
    Jesus Gil-Ortega García
    Electoral Processes Director
    agporras@indra.es
    +34 91 480 90 15
    +34 91 480 95 56 (Fax)
    http://www.indracompany.com
    Indra is the premier IT company in Spain and a leading multinational in the world, with clients in more than 100 countries and revenues that exceeds $3,000 M.

    For over 30 years Indra has developed innovative election solutions and services, taking care of all kind of process regardless of their complexities.

    Indra's comprehensive electoral offer covers each phase of the election process from global consulting and management, drafting of the census, logistics, material supply, electoral education, biometric systems, to election day solutions including "turnkey" services, electronic voting systems, electronic counting systems, and results consolidation, transmission and report that is always based on security, transparency and reliability.
    Election Experience: With more than 300 electoral processes successfully managed worldwide, Indra holds a unique experience in the electoral field. Among other references, Indra delivered the electronic voting system for France local elections in 2010, the Electronic Counting System for the Norwegian parliamentary election in Oslo, 2009 and London Mayoral and Assembly elections of 2008; organized and developed Angola’s 2008 Legislative Elections; Spanish Elections since 1978, along with many other processes in countries like United States, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Nicaragua, Slovenia, Portugal, Morocco, etc. supported by our 29,000 professionals, adaptable solutions and client’s satisfaction.



    7. Intequip, Limited

    Moor Knoll House
    Ross Road
    Northampton, Northamptonshire
    NN5 5AX
    UNITED KINGDOM
    Clifford Young
    Managing Director
    intequip@btconnect.com
    +44 1604-75-2227

    Intequip is your one-stop worldwide supplier of voting and registration products, ancillary equipment, stationery, lecterns, and specially printed security forms and envelopes.
    Our range includes everything from ballot boxes to rubber stamps, generators to ID products, indelible election stains
    to specially assembled election kits.
    West Africa Office:
    Nadanta Enterprises Ltd, Accra, Ghana. Tel:+233244340191. Contact Mr Nana Darkwah
    Election Experience: Since 1985, we have exported products from our extensive range of supply to over 39 countries worldwide. We are in close and ongoing contact with the appropriate and relevant International organisations in this field. We have supplied a variety of electoral materials to elections in many countries including Nigeria, Afghanistan, Tanzania, Central African Republic, Mauritania, DRC, Palestine, Sierra Leone, Ghana and Angola.



    8. Jordan Products Company

    1050 33rd Avenue, SE
    Minneapolis, MN
    55414
    USA
    Alex Jordan
    Director of Sales
    info@jordan-products.com
    +1 651-641-6119
    +1 651-641-6120 (Fax)
    www.jordan-products.com
    Election Seal Characteristics (PDF)
    Jordan Products Company is a manufacturer and supplier of unique and proprietary self-adhesive tamperevident security seals for securing election equipment, voting machines, ballot boxes and containers. Secure-ID® security seals are “non-residue,” meaning they leave no adhesive on the equipment upon removal. The seals are customized with serial number/barcode, local/state name/logo, and optionally a custom “covert”(secret) tamper-evident message. The technology is fully proprietary, cannot be counterfeited, and is made only in the USA by Jordan Products. This will help satisfy regulatory auditors by guaranteeing your elections area chain-of-custody.

    Product Website: www.SecureIDSeals.com
    Election Experience: Jordan Products Company mainly supplies to states, counties and precincts in the United States.
    Product Video



    9. Lithotech

    Lithotech House, Hampton Park
    20 Georgian Crescent, Bryanston
    Johannesburg, Gauteng
    2561
    SOUTH AFRICA
    Ben Sachs
    Group Market Development Manager
    bens@lithotech.co.za
    +27 11 706-6751
    +27 11 706-3727 (Fax)
    www.lithotech.co.za
    Lithotech is a division of the international Bidvest Group Limited, and is southern Africa’s leading supplier of commercial office products, business forms and packaging products. Our election solutions division specialises in providing a world-class electoral supply service, including the production of ballot forms and complete polling station kits to technology solutions such as biometric-enabled voter registration systems with high quality fingerprint capture and ICOA-compliant photo-capture units for voter registration and identity systems.

    Secure document products and election services sourced from 11 company-owned printing and packaging plants make Lithotech a preferred and reliable supplier.
    Election Experience: Since 1999 we have provided services for various election-related projects internationally to countries such as South Africa, Mozambique, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Nigeria, Liberia, Sudan, Sao Tomé and many United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) country offices.



    10. Ren-Form cc

    Cnr Booysens and Trump Street
    Selby
    Johannesburg, Gauteng
    2001
    South Afrika
    Erika Hearnshaw
    Marketing Manager
    erikah@renform.co.za
    +27 11 493 1575
    +27 11 493 8373 (Fax)
    www.renform.co.za
    Ren-Form proudly serves South Africa’s premier customers by producing magazines, security printing, electoral papers (ballots, boxes, results slips, voting booths, voter station furniture, and all stationary) catalogues, continuous forms, web printing, scratch cards, digital print on demand and variable data security printing. For over 22 years, we have valued the importance of customer service and quality printing combined with state of the art technology and innovation. These core values continue to be the foundation of our success. Ren-Form’s modern production facilities are designed and equipped to facilitate your projects from preparation through distribution. We take extreme pride in our people and the innovative solutions we deliver.

    If you need targeted direct marketing that has a real impact on your bottom line, then you can be assured you partnering with the right organisation.
    Election Experience: 2004-6:
    22M ballots Uganda Presidential and Parliamentary elections.
    60M ballots DRC Round 1 and 2 elections.
    11M South Africa local elections.
    11M voter registration forms Nigeria.
    2007 -9:
    90Mballots Nigeria Elections
    S.A Voter’s roll (6.5 million Images)
    28.5M ballots SA national elections.
    6.5M ballots SA Gauteng Provincial ballots.
    Voter registration material for Mozambique.
    2010:
    59.2M National Assembly ballot papers for UNDP-Sudan.
    46M communal, 24 million presidential and 22 million deputes election ballot UNDP Burundi.
    2.1 million ballot papers for Namibia regional & local authority election.
    2011 -
    S.A. Ballots for IEC of 47 million
    DRC Ballots and Results Slips
    3.2 ballot for the Namibia National and Provincial elections.




    11. Smartmatic

    1001 Broken Sound Parkway
    Boca Raton, FL
    33487
    USA
    Edgard L. Fino Ballesteros
    Director - Electronic Voting Project
    sales@smartmatic.com
    +1 561-862-0747
    +1 561- 862-0749 (Fax)
    www.smartmatic.com
    Smartmatic is a multinational company that designs and deploys technological solutions intended to help governments to fulfill, in the most efficient way, their commitments toward citizens worldwide. It is a supplier of advanced technology, with a proven experience in the United States, Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. Smartmatic is organized around three business areas: Auditable Voting Systems, Identity Management Solutions, and Solutions for Smart Cities (Public Safety and Intelligent Transportation Systems)
    Election Experience: Smartmatic has the necessary resources to carry out all phases of an election, such as technology, products, services and above all, knowledge, commitment and experience. The company has successfully organized, performed, or provided the technology behind multiple national and regional elections and pilots deployed in Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia and the United States. 3,500 elections on three continents; supported the casting of 1.5 billion votes, each with a voter-verifiable paper trail; installed over 300,000 polling stations; registered over 7 million people; created over 150,000 temporary local jobs, are some of the statistics that distinguish Smartmatic’s elections history so far.



    12. Smith and Ouzman, Limited

    Brampton Road
    Eastbourne, Sussex
    BN22 9AH
    UNITED KINGDOM
    Nick Smith
    Director
    elections@smith-ouzman.com
    +44 1323 524 000
    UK only 0800-298-2911 (Toll Free)
    +44 1323 524 024 (Fax)
    www.smith-ouzman.com
    Smith & Ouzman Ltd has been established for over 60 years and is the globally trusted name in security printing and elections supplies.

    Our team of professional staff have considerable experience in election projects and are able to provide expert advise on your requirements.

    Production is undertaken at our manufacturing plant and selected global sourcing partners to enable us to provide a vast range of elections materials including ballot papers, registration forms, ID documents, high security paper, security envelopes, indelible ink, polling booths and election kits.

    Smith & Ouzman Limited is the company that provides you with security, integrity and reliability.
    Election Experience: Afghanistan, ballot papers; Benin, indelible ink; Botswana, ballot papers, pens; European Union, ballot papers; Ghana, equipment; Kenya, ballot papers, ID card pouches, registration forms, voters cards; Kosovo, ballot papers, registration forms, postal ballots; Liberia, indelible ink; Malawi, ballot papers, UV lamps; Mauritania, ballot papers; Namibia, ballot papers; Nigeria,ballot papers; Somaliland, ballot papers, indelible ink; Sudan, polling booths; Tanzania, indelible ink, security envelopes; Uganda, ballot papers, indelible ink; United Kingdom, ballot papers, poll cards, registration forms, postal ballots; Zanzibar, indelible ink, election stationery; West Bank/Gaza, security paper; Zambia, ballot papers, indelible ink; Zimbabwe, ballot papers.
    py

  2. #2
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    Oct 2008
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    13,391
    Notes on indelible ink 260712


    Very limited literature available on indelible ink. Full of problems and controversies. It is used only when no other measures are available. It is not used in developed countries, only in developing and post-conflict countries. Eg Afghanistan where there was no electoral roll. If there is any other method available to avoid double voting, avoid indelible ink. It’s very messy.


    Basic material Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) up to 25% concentration. Since it is very expensive, there are incentives to cut down on the concentration. It works by burning the skin and the cuticle brown. It takes 1 minute to set in. It may be have coloured ink added to give it a more prominent look but it is not lasting and can be removed easily.


    For effective application, the finger must be dipped, up to the first knuckle, in a bottle of the ink with a sponge inside. It is important for the ink to seep into the cuticle as it will be harder to remove.
    Supplier: Need an experienced ink producer to produce it well. The design of the bottle is very important. India suppliers have horrible quality. Consider IFES List: AVANTE International Technology Inc., CODE Inc. of Canada- (bankrupt already. Check.) Copenhagen Election A/S – excellent, DCS Group, Landtrade



    Application point: It is normally applied after casting the ballot to avoid smudging of the ballot paper. This will avoid a queue forming at the ballot paper issuance stage. After dipping the finger in the indelible ink, the voter is required to wait for 1 minute to allow the silver nitrate to take effect.
    Other application methods such as brush or marker pen are not suitable as the stain is easily removed.


    To remove the stain, it is necessary to use corrosive materials or even chlorox can bleach the stain off.


    Quality: Get good ink and ensure proper application to get proper results.


    Testing: Sourced from reputable suppliers. Get a range of suppliers and conduct live trials – 7 human trials. Try to remove the stains using different methods. National laboratories have to test the ink to ensure that concentration of AgNO3 is at 25% before it can be used.


    The EC clerks have to be trained thoroughly on how to apply indelible ink. Public education is also very important as the voters are the stake-holders and need to be briefed early. Set up a campaign to do this. Show on tv well-known voters who have tested and accepted the ink. Muslims have to be reassured that the stain is halal. Consider carefully election petitions by losing candidates if the ink is not properly applied.


    Checking of finger of voter: This is very important to look carefully at the tip of the finger beneath the nail to look for traces of the stain. If present, the voter does not get a ballot paper.
    py

  3. #3
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    · Method of procurement: The bidding process for procuring the ink should be open and competitive as well as transparent for parties, observers and the public. A minimum standard for the quality of the ink based on international standards (referenced and linked to below in #1) can be a helpful benchmark for a minimum requirement. An open, competitive process would also help to determine what is a reasonable cost for inking supplies in a country the size of Malaysia. For an initial comparison sake, you can look into IFES's buyers guide listed below in #2)

    · Public testing of ink: Once ink is purchased, many election commissions will publicly test the ink in demonstrations open to parties and observers to help build confidence in its reliability. Many countries using ink for the first time experience a swath of rumors on election day about ink failing (being easily removed, not marking properly, etc.). It can be beneficial for the election commission to get ahead of these suspicions early by conducting public tests in the pre-election period.

    · Application of ink: Many countries worry that voters will accidentally get ink on their ballots and invalidate their vote. This is a potential concern, but there are some actions that can be done to limit the problem:

    o The ink can be applied after the voter has cast his or her ballot

    o An ink marker can be used instead of an ink dipping pot. Ink markers (designed for the purpose of inking voters..not a regular marker) can be used by polling officials to mark the fingernail of voters. Since it is on the finger nail, there is little risk of rubbing on to the ballot. It is crucial, however, that these markers have the necessary concentration of silver nitrate (see below).

    o Polling officials can prepare to help prevent messy ink application. This would need to be applied consistently at the national level. Polling officials can be trained to apply ink very carefully and/or can be provided with materials (napkins or cloths) to help clean dripping ink.

    o The Election Law or polling procedures can give voters the option to trade in their ballot paper if they accidentally damage, tear or ink their ballot. Voters are then given a new ballot to cast their vote. This is usually called a spoiled ballot (versus an invalid ballot which is placed in the ballot box). With this option, it is absolutely crucial that spoiled ballots are accounted for as a separate category during ballot accounting at the end of election day.
    Please let me know if you have any questions.
    Cheers,

    Laura

    Resources

    1) UNDP Procurement Guide for Elections In Post Conflict Countries (2005)
    http://asia-pacific.undp.org/practic...tElections.pdf

    It has become best practice to use a form of indelible ink based on a silver nitrate solution (usually 5-25 % solution) to mark the voter’s finger to prevent multiple voting. The ink can be applied by a dipping the finger in a bottle, by a marker pen or by spray. As mentioned, the active ingredient in the ink is silver nitrate. Silver nitrate reacts when exposed to sunlight leaving a visible stain on the skin. The higher the concentration of silver nitrate the more visible the stain will become. Prior to deciding the application method and the silver nitrate concentration it is advisable to carry out tests in consultation with national stakeholders, i.e. political parties, the electoral management bodies and relevant civil society organisations. However, it is crucial that tests of indelible ink are carried out as per the instructions of the supplier. The ink has to dry on the skin for a minimum of 30 seconds before any attempt is made to remove it and the skin has to be exposed to natural light before the ink will become visible. Furthermore, the ink has to be stored and handled carefully, e.g. it may not be exposed to direct sunlight before use.

    Appendix 2

    Table 2: Standard Election kit for 500 voters

    Quantity
    Description
    Technical Specifications
    Comments

    2

    Indelible ink

    Bottles of indelible ink for staining voters’ fingertips for minimum 72 hours.

    Content: 60-80 cc
    py

  4. #4
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    With thanks to Mr. Gordon Sinclair of Code ESI (Electoral Services International) Incorporated of Canada.

    1. How long can the ink last?

    It will last for about 48 to 72 hours on the skin, the fingernail stays marked until it grows out.


    2. Is the basic material Silver Nitrate?

    One of the active ingredients is the SN yes, there is also medical alcohol, violet ink.

    3. What is the concentration?


    Concentrations of ink were developed by CODE Inc. ESI at 7, 10, 12, 14, 18, 20, and 25% by volume

    4. What is the coverage - cc per voter or voters per cc?


    That differs pending the size of the finger and the condition of the skin. CODE Inc. ESI established standard volumes at 60 and 80ml, enough to mark approximately 800 voters per btl.

    5. Standard packaging?
    The ink is put into a plastic container, into which a sponge is inserted. The sponge is cut with crosshair slice so you can insert the finger into the sponge. The sponge is very important that it be of proper characteristics so as to apply the ink properly and avoid dripping and applying more than necessary.

    100 bottles of 95 ml bottles in one box.



    6. Method of application?

    The index finger or any for that matter is simply inserted into the bottle up to the first joint.

    7. Point of application - before issue of ballot paper or after voting?


    Normally as the person returns from voting and leaving the booth prior to walking out the station.

    8. How long will the whole marking process take?


    Voting, up to 4-5 minutes…marking the finger, a matter of seconds only, say 15-20.

    9. Typically how much time is taken by one voter from the time he appears in front of the 1st clerk until he completes voting and is allowed to leave the polling station?


    Again pending the type of vote, it can be very short, if for example it is a pres. vote one candidate to choose a matter of 5 minutes. A complicated ballot you may add some more time. It’s standing in line that takes the time!!

    10. What is the cost?


    Anywhere from 10 to 25 dollars, but be very careful with this, there are factors involved, SN is a commodity and is purchased on the open market, total numbers, more the cheaper per unit, and of course the concentration. 10% is far more cheaper than 25%.

    11. What is the delivery period?


    Say for 10 to 50k bottles a few weeks. At some times delivery is sometimes difficult, under normal conditions this item is transported as a DG good. Dangerous goods because of the alcohol although very limited in the mixture the total volume per box is enough to be considered a flammable liquid. Although it is a mixture in with other components and a sponge plus individually wrapped combustion is highly unlikely.

    12. What is the shelf-life of the ink?


    No more than six months, pending the color of the bottle and the quality of the sponge, cheap sponge deteriorates. Only the CODE Inc. ESI from Canada seems to have a longer life, quality sponge. The mixtures in light sensitive and the colors orange, brown and black tend to let in less UV than say white. However the ink is not kept long enough for that to be a factor. So most are packaged in white containers, less expensive the color plastic bottles.

    13. What colours are the dyes?

    The dye is violet and the SN will ture the mixture on your finger a very dark black color after exposure to the sunlight.


    14. Can the ink be removed?

    Good question, and many go to some ridiculous lengths to attempt. But in fact good quality is very hard to remove. Some think they have removed it when after washing they go back out into the light it again turns black. In fact we originally used this as a means to show the person had voted, it was not an “absolute” method of totally eliminating fraud. However, even removing the ink if possible it will leave a tell tale stain that will show the finger was indeed marked with something.

    15. If so, what chemicals are required?


    Caustic soda, choric acid, phosphorous, or in some cases a good pair of snipers, cut off the end of the finger!

    16. Fraud: What can go wrong?


    How do you mean?

    17. How do we detect fraud?


    At what lever do you mean detect fraud. Fraud by the individual voter is very far a few, imagine if a lot of people attempt to vote more than once in most cases it does not affect the outcome. It is more likely to be organized fraud at a higher level that may change the wider results that the single guy trying to simply beat the system on his own.

    18. Anything we have missed out....


    The best possible application now for appropriate and cost effectiveness is the pen application for the ink. Many people feel dipping their fingers in a bottle is…let’s say degrading. A cheaper and very effective way is to use a pen/marker applicator. It is by far the best alternative to a highly visible end of the finger immersed digit into a bottle of expensive liquid!
    py

  5. #5
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    Indelible ink supplier - Alibaba

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  6. #6
    Join Date
    Oct 2008
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    13,391
    Election ink


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia



    Anonymous voter shows stained finger during the Iraqi election of 2005.



    Election ink applied to the forefinger of a voter in India.

    Election ink or electoral stain is a semi-permanent ink or dye that is applied to the forefinger(usually) of voters during elections in order to prevent electoral fraud such as double voting. It is an effective method for countries where identification documents for citizens are not always standardised or institutionalised.


    [edit]Application

    Electoral stain is used as a good security feature to prevent double voting in elections. Ink is normally applied to the left hand index finger, especially to the cuticle where it is almost impossible to remove quickly. Ink may be applied in a variety of ways, depending on circumstance and preference. The most common methods are via dipping bottles with sponge inserts, bottles with a brush applicators, spray bottles, and marker pens. With all methods the finger should be left to dry for 15–30 seconds and exposed to light before being cleaned to ensure the mark remains visible for the desired length of time.


    [edit]Composition

    Electoral stain typically contains a pigment for instant recognition, and silver nitrate which stains the skin on exposure to ultraviolet light, leaving a mark that is impossible to wash off and is only removed as external skin cells are replaced. Industry standard electoral inks contain 10%, 14% or 18% silver nitrate solution, depending on the length of time the mark is required to be visible. Although normally water-based, electoral stains occasionally contain a solvent such as alcohol to allow for faster drying, especially when used with dipping bottles, which may also contain a biocide to ensure bacteria aren't transferred from voter to voter.
    [edit]Longevity

    Election stain typically stays on skin for 72–96 hours, lasting 2 to 4 weeks on the fingernailand cuticle area. The election ink used in India puts a permanent mark on the cuticle area which disappears only with the growth of new nail. It can take up to 4 months for the stain to be replaced completely by new nail growth. Stain with concentrations of silver nitrate higher than 18% have been found to have no effect on stain longevity, as even with stronger solutions silver nitrate doesn't have a photosensitive reaction on live skin cells. This means that the stain will wear off as new skin grows[1]. Silver nitrate is an irritant and frequently harmful at 25% solution and above, even being used as an effective, if painful, cauterizing agent in the treatment of rhinitis at that concentration[2]. At 25% the silver nitrate content will also start to precipitate depending on conditions, forming fine crystals which can also be irritating on skin and reducing the active dissolved silver nitrate back to as low as 18%.


    [edit]Colour

    Electoral stain is traditionally violet in colour, before the photosensitive element takes effect to leave a black or brown mark. However for the Surinamese legislative election, 2005, orange replaced violet as the colour for marking the voters' fingers as it was found to last just as long and be more appealing to voters, as it resembled the national colours. In some parts of the world, women stain their fingers violet for cosmetic reasons, meaning a different colour would be needed in such places to distinguish the marks and to ensure nobody was unfairly prevented from voting.


    [edit]Efficiency

    Marker pens are the most efficient use of ink, with one 5ml pen able to mark 600 people, although dipping bottles are often preferred, despite a 100 ml bottle only marking 1000. This may be due to the iconic images associated with the Iraqi and Afghan elections of the early 21st century. Dipping bottles can leave a more comprehensive stain of slightly longer longevity (depending on silver nitrate content) than markers can. However marker pens are much cheaper and easier to transport, reducing costs to the election organisers considerably, and the advised option when stains are only needed to be guaranteed for 3 to 5 days. Marker pens also leave a much smaller mark when properly applied, which is more agreeable to many voters.


    [edit]Controversies

    In the Afghan presidential election, 2004, allegations of electoral fraud arose around the use of indelible ink stains, which many claimed were easily able to be washed off [3]. Election officials had chosen to use the more efficient marker pen option; however, regular marker pens were also sent out to polling stations, which led to confusion and some people being marked with less permanent ink[4].


    Critics of indelible ink point out that an individual can theoretically circumvent the security of indelible ink by coating the finger with a temporary yet transparent glue. The indelible ink would adhere to the glue which could then be washed off leaving the individual available for another round of voting. Sabotaging the finger marking process could cast doubt on the legitimacy of the vote.[citation needed]


    In the Malaysian general election, 2008, the election authorities canceled the use of Electoral Stain a week before voters went to the polls,[5] saying it would be unconstitutional to prevent people from voting even if they had already had their fingers stained. Additionally they cited reports of ink being smuggled in from neighboring Thailand[6] in order to mark peoples' fingers before they had a chance to vote, thus denying them their rights.


    During the Zimbabwean presidential election, 2008, reports surfaced that those who had chosen not to vote were attacked and beaten by government sponsored mobs. The mobs attacked those without ink on their finger.[7]


    [edit]International use

    Some countries which have used Electoral stain in general elections include:

    1. Afghanistan (dip)
    2. Algeria
    3. Bangladesh
    4. Benin
    5. Burkina Faso
    6. Democratic Republic of the Congo
    7. Egypt (dip)
    8. Gambia
    9. India (marker pen)
    10. Indonesia
    11. Iraq
    12. Lebanon
    13. Libya (dip)
    14. Mauritania
    15. Mexico
    16. Mozambique
    17. Peru
    18. Philippines
    19. South Africa
    20. Sri Lanka
    21. Suriname
    22. Tchad
    23. Tunisia
    24. Uganda
    25. Venezuela
    26. Zimbabwe

    [edit]References







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