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Thread: Projek Cinta: When is the corn flower ready for pollination?

   
   
       
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    Projek Cinta: When is the corn flower ready for pollination?

    Corn Pollination – How To Hand Pollinate Corn


    Image by Thomas Kriese

    By Jackie Rhoades


    How wonderful it would be to reap a bounty of corn if all we needed to do was drop the seeds in their little hole and watch them grow. Unfortunately for the home gardener, manual pollination of corn is almost a necessity. Even if your plot of corn is fairly large, learning how to hand pollinate corn can increase your yield and help prevent those sterile stalks that are often found along the edges of your planting. Before you learn about hand pollinating corn, it helps to know a little about the plant itself.


    How Corn Pollination Happens



    Corn
    (Zea mays) is actually a member of a family of annual grasses and while it doesn’t produce showy petals, it does have bath male and female flowers on each plant. The male flowers are called the tassel. That’s the part that looks like grass gone to seed that blooms at the top of the stalk. As the tassel ripens, pollen is shed from the center spike downward to the lower fronds. The female parts of the stalk are the ears located at leaf junctions and the female flowers are the silks. Each strand of silk is connected to one kernel of corn.


    Pollination occurs when pollen touches the strand of silk. This seems like pollination should be easy. The pollen drifting down from the tassel should pollinate the ears below, right? Wrong! 97% of an ear’s pollination comes from other plants, which is why it is important to know when and how to pollinate corn.

    In larger fields, wind takes care of corn pollination. Between air circulation and stalks jostling one another in the wind, there is enough natural agitation to spread the pollen. In smaller garden plots, the gardener takes the place of the wind and the gardener needs to know when to do the job as well as how.

    Timing for Hand Pollinating Corn


    To pollinate corn efficiently, wait until the tassels are fully open and beginning to shed the yellow pollen. This usually begins 2-3 days before silk emerges from the embryonic ears. As soon as the silk emerges, you’re ready to begin the manual pollination of corn. Pollination will continue for another week under ideal conditions. Most pollen shedding occurs between 9:00 and 11:00 am, after the morning dew has dried. Cool, cloudy, or rainy weather can delay or inhibit pollination.


    How to Hand Pollinate Corn

    Timing is everything. Once you have the when, how to hand pollinate corn is a snap. Literally! Ideally, hand pollinating corn should be done in the morning, but many gardeners have bosses who object to taking time off for such endeavors, so early evening, before dew fall, is your best alternative.


    Snap the tassels off a few stalks and use them like feather dusters. Dust over the emerging silks at each ear. You’ll be hand pollinating corn for about a week, so use your judgment as to how many tassels you snap per dusting. Start at the opposite ends of your rows each night to help equalize the distribution. That’s it! You’ve successfully completed your manual pollination of corn.


    A relaxing stroll through the garden and a little light wrist action is all it takes. You’ll be surprised at how relaxing hand pollinating corn can be. Sure beats a lot of other garden chores and the rewards will be well worth the time.

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    How to pollinate corn

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    Published on Jun 23, 2013
    Growing organic food can be very rewarding and fun for the entire family. This video discusses pollinating corn by hand. Corn is a wind pollinated plant and if you don't have many rows of corn planted, proper pollination of the female corn ears can be difficult. If the ears of corn that you pick have blank sections on it once it gets shucked, this is an example of inadequate pollination. There are several ways to hand pollinate corn, I explained two methods in this video. Each one of the female hairs, I call them hairs but the scientific name is (stigmas) the common name is (silk or corn silk) are attached to a kernel inside the stalk. Each one of those hairs (or stigmas) need to be pollinated for the kernel to grow. When each one is adequately pollinated, you will have a beautiful full ear of corn with rows of kernels. Hope you enjoy the video. Thanks for watching!





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    Pollination Methods: Corn


    wiscplantbreeding
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    Ear Shake Test to Determine Corn Pollination Progress

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    Published on Jun 28, 2012
    Dr. Bob Nielsen, Purdue Extension Corn Agronomist, visits a cornfield during pollination in west central Indiana. Shown and discussed is a quick-test, by dissecting and shaking the corn ear, to check the progression of pollination. This test determines the success of ovule (kernel) fertilization, but cannot be used as a yield estimate. Fertilized kernels, if subjected to stress (e.g., drought) may still abort or poorly fill, causing reduced yields.





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    How to Pollinate Corn


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    What's Wrong with My Sweet Corn?


    UIExtension
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    How narrow should corn rows go?

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    Uploaded on Sep 20, 2011
    Dr. Joe Lauer, University of Wisconsin - Agronomy Department, takes you into the field to discuss the interaction of corn row spacing and plant population and its effect on yield.


    • Category

      Education

    • License

      Standard YouTube License






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    Tips for Growing Corn


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    Plant in blocks so no matter where wind blows, the corn gets pollinated.
    Bend tassle over to pollinate the ears.
    When to harvest: Silk gets brown and dried. Open leaves, press with nail against the ears. If liquid is clear, it is not ready. If it is white and milky, the corn is ready for harvesting.
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    A Sustainable Farmer Talks Corn

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    Uploaded on Aug 3, 2011
    Subscribe to our new Food Farmer Earth channel on YouTube:
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    Visit cookingupastory.com for more videos. Anthony Boutard shares the history behind the different varieties of corn that he grows, and describes their more notable uses. Anyone who knows Anthony, knows this farmer believes in growing a wide diversity of crops, including diversity within a species. It just so happens that corn being one of the oldest grains also has one of the largest number of varieties of any crop species.

    Check out our new series:
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    Ohio State University Extension
    Department of Horticulture and Crop Science
    2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, Ohio 43210-1044



    Corn Pollination - An Overview

    AGF-128-95

    Unlike all other major grain crops, the corn plant has separate male and female flowering parts. The tassel and ear shoot are the male and female flowering structures, respectively, of the plant. The flowering stage in corn, which involves pollen shed and silking, is the most critical period in the development of a corn plant from the standpoint of grain yield determination. Drought, high temperature stress, as well as hail damage and insect feeding have the greatest impact on yield potential during the reproductive stage. The following is an overview of some of the key steps and phases of the corn pollination process.



    • Pollen shed usually begins two to three days prior to silk emergence and continues for five to eight days with peak shed on the third day. On a typical midsummer day, the shedding of pollen is in the morning between 9:00 and 11:00 a.m.
    • The tassel is usually fully emerged and stretched out before any pollen is shed. Pollen shed begins at the middle of the central spike of the tassel and spreads out later over the whole tassel with the lower branches last to shed pollen.
    • Pollen grains are borne in anthers, each of which contains a large number of pollen grains. The anthers open and the pollen grains pour out in early to mid morning after dew has dried off the tassels. Pollen is light and is often carried considerable distances by the wind. However, most of it settles within 20 to 50 feet.
    • Pollen shed is not a continuous process. It stops when the tassel is too wet or too dry and begins again when temperature conditions are favorable. Pollen stands little chance of being washed off the silks during a rain storm as little to none is shed when the tassel is wet. Also, silks are covered with fine, sticky hairs which serve to catch and anchor pollen grains.
    • Under favorable conditions, pollen grain remains viable for only 18 to 24 hours. However, the pollen grain starts growth of the pollen tube down the silk channel within minutes of coming in contact with a silk and the pollen tube grows the length of the silk and enters the female flower (ovule) in 12 to 28 hours.
    • A well developed ear shoot should have 750 to 1,000 ovules (potential kernels) each producing a silk. The silks from near the base of the ear emerge first and those from the tip appear last. Under good conditions, all silks will emerge and be ready for pollination within 3 to 5 days and this usually provides adequate time for all silks to be pollinated before pollen shed ceases.
    • Pollen of a given plant rarely fertilizes the silks of the same plant. Under field conditions 97% or more of the kernels produced by each plant are pollinated by other plants in the field.
    • The amount of pollen is rarely a cause of poor kernel set. Each tassel contains from 2 to 5 million pollen grains which translates to 2,000 to 5,000 pollen grains produced for each silk of the ear shoot. Shortages of pollen are usually only a problem under conditions of extreme heat and drought. Poor seed set is more often associated with poor timing of pollen shed with silk emergence (silks emerging after pollen shed).

    Source: Aldrich, S. R., W. O. Scott, and R. G. Hoeft. 1986. Modern Corn Production. 3rd edition. A&L Publications (Chapter 1 - "How the Corn Plant Grows").


    Prepared by:
    Peter Thomison
    Extension Agronomist


    All educational programs conducted by Ohio State University Extension are available to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis without regard to race, color, creed, religion, sexual orientation, national origin, gender, age, disability or Vietnam-era veteran status.
    Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Ag. Adm. and Director, OSU Extension.
    TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-6181
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