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Thread: Delimitation: Redistricting Procedure Using QGIS

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Oct 2008

    Delimitation: Redistricting Procedure Using QGIS

    Redistricting Procedures

    [I want to object to the EC Delimitation Proposals: download the form attached and fill in page 9.]
    Objective: To Prepare Counter-proposal to SPRís Cadangan Persempadanan Semula.

    Figure 1: Johor Current Map Statistics Before & After Redistricting Exercise.
    EQ = Electoral Quotient = Total voter population divided by the no. of constituencies.

    Eg EQ PAR for Selangor is Total Voter Population/22
    EQ DUN for Selangor is Total Voter Population/56
    Refer to yellow table below for the nos.

    The statistics indicate a very severe malapportionment of the seats in Johor. Blue undersized, red oversized. PARmax/PARmin is 282.8% (3x) while DUNmax/DUNmin is 394.7% (4x).

    Figure 2: Johor PARís Arranged by Voter Size

    After redistricting, the disparity is reduced to less than half.

    PARmax/PARmin = 123.41% (44% x 282.8%), DUNmax/DUNmin = 146.54% (37% x 394.7%)

    Figure 3: Johor Proposed Map and Redistricting

    PAR = Parliamentary Constituency
    PAR EQ = Electoral Quotient of the Parliamentary Constituencies of a State = State Voter Population/No. of PAR's

    Figure 4: PAR as % of PAR EQ: PARmax = 115.65%, PARmin = 93.74%

    DUN = Dewan Undangan Negeri (State Assembly Seat)

    DUN EQ = Electoral Quotient of the State Constituencies of a State = State Voter Population/No. of DUN's

    Figure 5: DUN as % of DUN EQ: DUNmax = 112.26% , DUNmin = 79.59%
    Attached Files Attached Files
    Last edited by pywong; 14th January 2015 at 09:55 AM.

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Oct 2008
    Part II


    Federal Constitution

    Elections Act

    • Section 9A. Certified or recertified electoral roll shall be deemed to be final

    Key Points:

    • Article 46: The EC has no power to determine the no. of seats. It is fixed by Parliament for each State under Article 46, which can only be amended with a ⅔ majority. Hence it is disturbing to hear stories of certain oppositiion parties negotiating with the EC on seat increase. Both sides should be aware that this is not the job-scope of the EC.

    • Article 113 Conduct of Elections: There must be a minimum of 8 years between end of one delimitation review and start of next review. The review must be completed within 2 years

    • Article 114 Constitution of the Election Commission: The Agong shall appoint members of the EC which enjoys public confidence, meaning the EC is answerable to the public. In their claim of ďCekap & TelusĒ, they should put all efforts to ensure the public is well-informed about their delimitation plans and to put it up in digital format online for maximum access to the public.

    • Article 116 Federal Constituencies had a safe-guard in 1957 which limited the variation between seat sizes to 15% from the electoral quota. This was removed in 1962 so much so, we have the largest seat 9 times larger than the smallest.

    • Article 117 State Constituencies and Eight Schedule: On 16.01.1983, Section 4(2) was repealed by Act A584.

    (2) the number of elected members of the Legislative Assembly shall be the same as or a multiple of the number of the Federal constituencies into which the State is divided under Article 116 of the Federal Constitution.

    This was a safeguard to ensure that State and Federal Constituencies were kept within reasonable bounds in terms of voter population during delimitation. Today, this safeguard is no more, so much so, in Selangor, we have the voter population of a State Constituency (N18 Hulu Kelang - 46,136 voters) larger than the Parliamentary voter populations of the 3 smallest Parliamentary seats (P92 Sabak Bernam - 37,390, P93 Sg Besar 42,923, P95 Tanjong Karang 42,140). Data from GE13.

    • Thirteenth Schedule prescribes the delimitation principles and procedures: The principles and procedures are so loose that the EC could delimit the smallest seat to be only ľ that of the largest within the same State.

    The Thirteenth Schedule has no mention of land size, yet the EC in their new Taklimat Persempadanan Semula 2014 has creative criteria like towns having more than 60,000 voters and ABOVE (from public statements, we know the EC is thinking of capping it at 100,000 voters) while the rural seats is BELOW 30,000 voters (we donít know the lower limit. It could be 17,815 as in P207 Igan during GE13)


  3. #3
    Join Date
    Oct 2008

    If you wish to get started on Redistricting immediately, proceed to Steps 2, 3 and 4. If you like to have more background before you start, continue below.

    1. EC electoral roll Apr 2014 (ER 2013) analysed to produce schedule of DMís nationwide.
    2. Install QGIS: Download the file QGIS Simple Guide (updated) Version 6 attached and follow the instructions. Note that QGIS revise their programs frequently, so the version shown in the guide may not be the latest one. Use the latest one in [Note: The guide uses QGIS Dufour (2.0.1) while the latest version in Jan 2015 shows QGIS 2.6 Brighton. Install the 32-bit version.]
    3. Singamís Video 10 Redistricting.mp4 using Melaka data
    4. Redistricting Plugin by Sean,
    5. Redistricting_Sean_py1.docx (Seanís Redistricting.docx) using Perlis data. [attached]
    6. For Practice: Pivot table analysis of Johor. Print out the PAR/DUN results for quick reference.

    We acknowledge with our deepest gratitude the contributions of the following in the preparation of this methodology:

    Redistricting Plugin: Sean Lin. This has been officially accepted by QGIS as part of their program.
    Video 10 Redistricting.mp4: SV Singam
    QGIS Installation Guide: KL Gan. He was our 1st trainer who discovered and introduced QGIS to Tindak Malaysia (TM).
    The many TM volunteers who spent months developing the QGIS Georeferencing methodology and digitizing the EC electoral maps and converting the DM's (Daerah Mengundi's) into a digital format. Without this crucial step, nothing could have been achieved. Thank you very much. You know who you are.
    There are also many individual contributors through acts of selflessness, helping to build a better electoral system. They are to numerous to name.
    Attached Files Attached Files
    Last edited by pywong; 23rd January 2015 at 10:43 PM.

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Oct 2008
    III.6 Johor Redistricting:

    For this exercise, your goal is to achieve this:

    PARmax/PARmin = 123.41% (44% x 282.8%), DUNmax/DUNmin = 146.54% (37% x 394.7%)

    Figure 3: Johor Proposed Map and Redistricting:

    The left chart shows the northen PARís being made larger than the southern PARís. However, after dividing by 3 into DUNís, you can see on the right that the DUNís have become under-sized (smaller than 90% EQ DUN). This is a consequence of not having a constant DUN/PAR ratio for each PAR - some are 2, some 3.

    Summary of Redistricting using Pivot Table
    Redistricting to match the values in the Column ďVariation from DUN EQĒ. Blue is les than 90% EQ. Red is more than 110% EQ. Eg J1, the DUN is blue (<90% EQ while the PAR is red (>110% EQ). 3-DUN PARís are J1, J2, J4, JO13. Others are 2-DUN PARís.


    Details of redistricting using pivot table.


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